The authors found that specific programs using one-to-one, small-group tutoring, and cooperative learning showed positive outcomes, as did a small number of programs emphasizing social-emotional learning, technology, or teaching of metacognitive strategies. Benchmark assessments did not affect reading outcomes. Leaving aside tutoring and benchmarks, programs that provide additional instructional time (usually, a daily extra period) were no more effective than programs that did not provide extra time.
The findings suggest that secondary readers benefit more from engaging and personalized instruction than from additional time on supplemental courses.
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